Tuesday, October 18, 2016

AL: /æ/

A bigger tranche this time, but Blogger does unhelpful things with the notes. I could probably fix this, but my time would be better spent on the book itself, so you'll have to imagine the links working. :-)

The sound /æ/ – 16%

There are two sounds here: /æl/ and /æ/. Notes indicate the much rarer /æ/.

abnormality
altimeter
calumny
hypothalamus
revalue
alabaster
alto
Calvinism
incalculable
prima ballerina
albatross
altruism
canal
infallible
salad
Albion
altruist
chalet
invaluable
salamander
album
altruistic
chalice
jalapeño
salaried
albumen
alveolar
challenge
keypal
salary
albumin
amalgam
cleft palate
low-calorie
salaryman
alchemist
amalgamate
contralto
maladjustment 13 sallow
alchemy
amalgamation
corps de ballet
malfeasance 14 salmon 23
alcohol
analogy
counterbalance 6 malapropism 15 salmonella 23
alcoholic
analysis
cruising altitude
malcontent 16 salon
alcoholism
animalcule
Dalai Lama 7 mall 17 salsa
alcopop
asphalt
Dalit
mallam
salutary
alfalfa
balaclava
dalliances
mallard
salutation
alfresco
balalaika 4 dally
malleable
salvage
algae
balance
Dalmatian
mallet
salvation
algal 1 ballad
decal
mallow
salve
algebra
ballast
evaluate
mallrat 18 salver
algebraic
ballerina
fallacy
malodorous 19 salvo
alibi
ballet
fallible
malware 20 salwar
alimony
ballot
fallopian tubes
marshmallow
shall 24
alkali 1 ballyhoo
fallow
medallion
shallow
alkaline
balustrade
fallow deer
metallic
shallows 25
alkaloid
batallion
formaldehyde
metallurgist
shalom 26
allegation
beauty salon
gal
mineralogy
shalt 27
allegory
bi-metallic strip
gallant 8 miscalculate
shilly-shally
Allen key
bivalve
gallantry
neuralgia
stalactite
alleluia
cabal
galleon
neuralgic
stalagmite
allergen
calabrese
gallery
non-alcoholic
stallion
allergenic
calamine lotion
Gallic
nostalgia
tala 28
allergy
calcify
gallivant
nostalgic
talc
alley
calcium
gallon
ophthalmic
talent
allied 2 calculable
gallop
ophthalmologist
talented
alligator
calculate
gallops
overvalue
tallow
ally
calculator
galloping
palace
talon
allocate
calculus
gallows
Palestinian
unbalanced
allomorph
Caledonian
galvanic
pallet
unchallengeable
allomorphic
calendar
galvani[s|z]e
pallette
unchallenged
allophone
calib[er|re]
galvani[s|z]ed
palliate
undervalue
allophonic
calibrate
genealogist 9 palliative
unpalatable
alloy 3 calico
genealogy 9 pallid
valance
aloe
caliphate
Gestalt
pallor
valediction
alopecia
callipers
halberd
palomino
valedictory
alpaca
callisthenics
halcyon
palpable
valentine
alphabet
callous
hallelujah
palpate
valet
alphabetic
calloused
hallo
palpitate
valo[u]r
alphabeti[s|z]e
callow
hallowed 10 palpitations 21 valuable
alphanumeric
Calor Gas
Halloween
phalanx 22 valuables 25
alpine
calorie
hallucinogen 11 phallic
valuation
Alsatian
calorific
halogen
phallus
value
altimeter
calorimeter
halogenic
rally
valuer
altitude
calque 5 heraldic 12 recalcitrant
valve

/æ/ Notes

  1. algal, and alkali
    The stressed (first) syllable has this vowel. See also under AL: /ə/.
  2. allied
    This is the adjective (as in, for example, "allied troops"). When used as a past participle this word has the same stress (and the same unstressed vowel) as the verb "ally" – see under AL: /ə/.
  3. alloy
    This is the noun. The same letters appear in words such as "unalloyed", which has an unstressed second syllable – see AL: /ə/.
  4. balalaika
    . The first syllable has this vowel; the "al" in the second syllable is unstressed – /ə/.
  5. calqueThis is not in the Macmillan English Dictionary, but it is in the Macmillan Dictionary Online. It is unlikely that an ESOL student would meet it, but it could arise in discussions of language
  6. counterbalance
    This is the sole representative of compound words formed with "balance". There are no separate entries either for idiomatic phrases (such as "balance of power" and "checks and balances").
  7. Dalai Lama
    Transcribed thus in the Macmillan English Dictionary but in the audio sample the sound is /ɑ:/.
  8. gallant
    This is the adjective, with stress on the first syllable. In the noun, the first syllable is unstressed – see AL: /ə/.
  9. genealogy
    Perhaps because of the popularity of genealogy on the Internet, the American English pronunciation (which Cambridge Dictionary of American English gives as having either /æl/ or /ɑl/) is often misheard, misreported, and then mistakenly learnt as /ɒ/ and misspelt as "geneology". As this is the only "-alogy" in English, it is possible that the erosion will continue , and that in 22nd-century English the a spelling will seem as old-fashioned as – for example – "shew" does today.
  10. hallowed
    The noun and the verb have limited (largely literary and/or poetic) use, but the past participle formed from the verb is still used in idioms such as ‘hallowed ground" or the hyperbolic – mock-reverential – "hallowed turf" in certain sports venues.
  11. hallucinogen
    The Macmillan English Dictionary gives this word the vowel sound /æ/, but the audio sample has /ə/ (like "hallucinate" and other derivatives, which are transcribed that way.
  12. heraldic
    It is not clear why the Macmillan English Dictionary does not include this word. Many others (for example, the Collins English Dictionary) do.
  13. maladjustment
    This is the sole representative of the many words that use the prefix "mal-" – with certain exceptions. These exceptions are generally cases where the remaining word, after the "mal-" is removed, is not a recognizable word in its own right.
  14. malfeasance
    This is included because the word "feasance", while it exists, is archaic and used chiefly in a legal context.
  15. malapropism
    This is included because the word "apropism" doesn‘t exist (except, perhaps, in a jocular context).
  16. malcontent
    This is included because, although the word "content" is recognizably etymologically relevant, the word is normally not a noun – not, that is, when stress is on the second syllable – (except in the British House of Lords, where it refers metonymically to the votes of people in favour of a motion, or to the voters themselves).
  17. mall
    The Macmillan English Dictionary gives a total of four transcriptions, two marked as "British English" and two marked as "American English". The two "British English" ones are /æ/ and /ɔ:/, but they both have the audio example /æ/. However, the one marked /ɔ:/ uses /æ/ in the context "shopping mall" – a context that tends to attract one of the American pronunciations (/ɔ/ – typically realized by speakers of British English as /ɔ:/).
  18. mallrat
    The Macmillan English Dictionary gives a "British English" pronunciation with /æ/. But as the word is American slang this pronunciation seems to be questionable. Certainly I have never heard it.
  19. malodorous
    The word "odorous" is not simply "giving off a smell", with a prefix indicating whether that smell is good or bad. (Similarly, "smelly" has an automatically negative connotation.)
  20. malware
    The "mal-" refers to the effect of the "-ware" rather than to its quality.
  21. palpitations
    Note the plural. The singular also exists, but the plural refers to a specific (though often ill- defined) physical condition.
  22. phalanx
    The Macmillan English Dictionary transcription is thus for British English, and gives /eɪ/ as American English – although the /eɪ/ pronunciation is common in the UK. In fact, the /æ/ seems to be common enough in the US for the /eɪ/ transcription to be linked to an American voice using /æ/.
  23. salmon and salmonella
    Note that in "salmon" the l is silent, whereas in "salmonella" it is not.
  24. shall
    In most other cases of words that end "-all" - "ball", "call", "fall", "gall", "hall" ... –  the pronunciation is /ɔ:/. Philologists are generally not surprised to find exceptional pronunciations in words that are dying out: the frequency graph at the Collins Dictionary entry for evidence of this decline. (The usage graph may take a few seconds to load, and by default it shows usage in the ten years to 2008; Use the drop-down menu to select 100 years [or 300 years for the whole story – with an explosion in the late 18th century followed by a steady decline in the 19th and 20th centuries].)
  25. shallows and valuables
    This is a noun. Note the plural ending.
  26. shalom
    The Macmillan English Dictionary gives this transcription, but the audio clip has /ə/. Moreover, especially when sung, the vowel is commonly heard with the long vowel /ɑ:/.
  27. shalt
    This is archaic; it is the second person singular of the verb "shall", but is still used in Biblical (and pseudo-Biblical) quotations – particularly in the form "Thou shalt not...".
  28. tala
    Indian English musical term, used also by Westerners in the UK referring to Indian music.

That's all for now. I'll be keeping my head down until I can put something out on Kindle.

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