Macmillan English Dictionary transcribes "almond" with this long vowel and no /l/, but many other pronunciations are current among native-speakers of British English. I have heard /ɑ:l/, /ɔ:l/, /æl/ and /ɒl/. Some of these are reported in Cambridge Dictionaries Online and identified as "American".
The Macmillan English Dictionary does not include "almoner", but other dictionaries (for example, Collins English Dictionary) do. In this and many other "-al-" words the letters "al" represent the phoneme /ɑ:/; there is no /l/.
Note the plural ending.
The Macmillan English Dictionary gives "aloo" this long vowel, but with primary stress on the second syllable, suggesting an /ə/ pronunciation in the first. Other pronunciations are common (as is normal with foreign borrowings).
In this expression (a position in a game of rugby) there is no clear (immediate) sense of "divided by two".
Used in compounds, probably the most successful being "swimming gala". In many northern dialects the stressed vowel is pronounced /eɪ/. (This pronunciation is identified in the Macmillan English Dictionary as "American", although it is common in many British English dialects.)
- half-baked, half-breed and half-caste
In these and many other words that use the qualifier "half" "half"-ness does not have a direct and/or obvious association with the word that follows "half-".
In this sort of building, some of the structural timbers (not necessarily half) have a cosmetic function.
In this sort of misleading statement much of what is asserted is true (often – though not necessarily – more than half).
The Macmillan English Dictionary transcribes this word with the long /ɑ:/ vowel, but the audio sample has a clear /æ/. Both pronunciations are common.
The Macmillan English Dictionary does not include this word but other dictionaries (for example, Collins English Dictionary) do.
The Macmillan English Dictionary gives this in the plural. The plural is indeed more common; the British National Corpus contains 141 instances of the plural and only 30 of the singular, and in the Corpus Of Contemporary American (a much bigger corpus) the preference is even stronger (705:71). But the singular is used - most commonly after a negative, as in the idiom "without a qualm".